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Creates and displays a status report for a disk based on the file system.
Chkdsk also lists and corrects errors on the disk. Used without parameters,
chkdsk displays the status of the disk in the current drive.
chkdsk [volume:][[Path] FileName] [/f] [/v] [/r] [/x] [/c] [/l[:size]]
Specifies the drive letter (followed by a colon), mount point, or volume
Specifies the location and name of a file or set of files that you want
chkdsk to check for fragmentation. You can use wildcard characters (that is,
* and ?) to specify multiple files.
Fixes errors on the disk. The disk must be locked. If chkdsk cannot lock the
drive, a message appears that asks you if you want to check the drive the
next time you restart the computer.
Displays the name of each file in every directory as the disk is checked.
Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information. The disk must be
Use with NTFS only. Forces the volume to dismount first, if necessary. All
open handles to the drive are invalidated. /x also includes the
functionality of /f.
Use with NTFS only. Performs a less vigorous check of index entries,
reducing the amount of time needed to run chkdsk.
Use with NTFS only. Skips the checking of cycles within the folder
structure, reducing the amount of time needed to run chkdsk.
Use with NTFS only. Changes the log file size to the size you type. If you
omit the size parameter, /l displays the current size.
Displays help at the command prompt.
To run chkdsk on a fixed disk, you must be a member of the Administrators
Checking a locked drive at restart
If you want chkdsk to correct disk errors, you cannot have open files on the
drive. If files are open, the following error message appears:
Chkdsk cannot run because the volume is in use by another process. Would you
like to schedule this volume to be checked the next time the system
If you choose to check the drive the next time you restart the computer,
chkdsk checks the drive and corrects errors automatically when you restart
the computer. If the drive partition is a boot partition, chkdsk
automatically restarts the computer after it checks the drive.
Reporting disk errors
Chkdsk examines disk space and disk use for the file allocation table (FAT)
and NTFS file systems. Chkdsk provides information specific to each file
system in a status report. The status report shows errors found in the file
system. If you run chkdsk without the /f command-line option on an active
partition, it might report spurious errors because it cannot lock the drive.
You should use chkdsk occasionally on each disk to check for errors.
Fixing disk errors
Chkdsk corrects disk errors only if you specify the /f command-line option.
Chkdsk must be able to lock the drive to correct errors. Because repairs
usually change a disk's file allocation table and sometimes cause a loss of
data, chkdsk sends a confirmation message similar to the following:
10 lost allocation units found in 3 chains.
Convert lost chains to files?
If you press Y, Windows saves each lost chain in the root directory as a
file with a name in the format Filennnn.chk. When chkdsk finishes, you can
check these files to see if they contain any data you need. If you press N,
Windows fixes the disk, but it does not save the contents of the lost
If you do not use the /f command-line option, chkdsk sends a message if a
file needs to be fixed, but it does not fix any errors.
If you use chkdsk /f on a very large disk (for example, 70 gigabytes) or a
disk with a very large number of files (for example, millions of files),
chkdsk might take a long time (for example, over several days) to complete.
The computer is not available during this time because chkdsk does not
relinquish control until it is finished.
Checking a FAT disk
Windows displays chkdsk status reports for a FAT disk in the following
Volume Serial Number is B1AF-AFBF
72214528 bytes total disk space
73728 bytes in 3 hidden files
30720 bytes in 12 directories
11493376 bytes in 386 user files
61440 bytes in bad sectors
60555264 bytes available on disk
2048 bytes in each allocation unit
35261 total allocation units on disk
29568 available allocation units on disk
Checking an NTFS disk
Windows displays chkdsk status reports for an NTFS disk in the following
The type of the file system is NTFS.
CHKDSK is verifying files...
File verification completed.
CHKDSK is verifying indexes...
Index verification completed.
CHKDSK is verifying security descriptors...
Security descriptor verification completed.
12372 kilobytes total disk space.
3 kilobytes in 1 user files.
2 kilobytes in 1 indexes.
4217 kilobytes in use by the system.
8150 kilobytes available on disk.
512 bytes in each allocation unit.
24745 total allocation units on disk.
16301 allocation units available on disk.
Using chkdsk with open files
If you specify the /f command-line option, chkdsk sends an error message if
there are open files on the disk. If you do not specify the /f command-line
option and open files exist, chkdsk might report lost allocation units on
the disk. This could happen if open files have not yet been recorded in the
file allocation table. If chkdsk reports the loss of a large number of
allocation units, consider repairing the disk.
Finding physical disk errors
Use the /r command-line option to find physical disk errors in the file
system. For information about recovering physically damaged files with
recover, see Related Topics.
Reporting bad disk sectors
Bad sectors reported by chkdsk were marked as bad when your disk was first
prepared for operation. They pose no danger.
Understanding exit codes
The following table lists the exit codes that chkdsk reports after it has
Exit code Description
0 No errors were found.
1 Errors were found and fixed.
2 Disk cleanup, such as garbage collection, was performed, or cleanup was
not performed because /f was not specified.
3 Could not check the disk, errors could not be fixed, or errors were not
fixed because /f was not specified.
The chkdsk command, with different parameters, is available from the
If you want to check the disk in drive D and have Windows fix errors, type:
chkdsk d: /f
If it encounters errors, chkdsk pauses and displays messages. Chkdsk
finishes by displaying a report that lists the status of the disk. You
cannot open any files on the specified drive until chkdsk finishes.
To check all of files on a FAT disk in the current directory for
noncontiguous blocks, type:
Chkdsk displays a status report, and then lists the files matching the file
specification that have noncontiguous blocks.
Creates and displays a status report for the disk. The chkdsk command also
lists and corrects errors on the disk.
The chkdsk command with the parameters listed below is only available when
you are using the Recovery Console. The chkdsk command with different
parameters is available from the command prompt.
chkdsk [drive:] [/p] [/r]
Used without parameters, chkdsk displays the status of the disk in the
Specifies the drive that you want chkdsk to check.
Performs an exhaustive check even if the drive is not marked for chkdsk to
run. This parameter does not make any changes to the drive.
Locates bad sectors and recovers readable information. Implies /p.
The chkdsk command requires the file Autochk.exe. If it cannot find it in
the startup directory (%systemroot%System32, by default), it will attempt
to locate it on the Windows Installation CD. If you have a multiboot
computer, be sure you are issuing this command from the drive containing
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